Prediabetes is the term for the early marker stage of type 2 diabetes when the blood sugar level begins to exceed the normal limit, but not too high to be categorized as type 2 diabetes. Prediabetes conditions include Impaired Glucose Tolerance (TGT) and Blood Sugar Blood Disturbed (GDPT ).
Patients with prediabetes have a greater risk of type 2 diabetes, but this condition can also serve as a reminder or turning point to immediately make lifestyle changes to a better direction. Treating prediabetes can help patients reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and other diseases, such as heart disease, blood vessels, kidneys, nerves, and eyes.
Causes of Prediabetes
The exact cause of prediabetes is unknown. However, genetic factors and family history play an important role in the occurrence of prediabates.
Prediabetes is related to the body's ability to process glucose in the body. Glucose that enters the body through foods, especially those containing carbohydrates, is processed into a source of energy for the body's cells with the help of the hormone insulin. Insulin helps keep the amount of sugar in order to keep it normal so there is no buildup of sugar in the bloodstream.
Prediabates occur when the glucose processing does not go well, as when the pancreas gland does not secrete sufficient amount of insulin or insulin resistance.
Symptoms of Prediabetes
Some common symptoms of type 2 diabetes are also a sign of prediabetes that needs to be watched, such as 3P or polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (often thirsty), and polyphagia (often eating). Fatigue and blurry vision can also be complained of. The symptoms of prediabetes may also be invisible to the patient, or vice versa, may be areas of dark skin on the knuckles, elbows, armpits, neck, or knees.
Some of these physical criteria need to watch out for the risk of causing prediabetes conditions in a person. Perform blood glucose testing if you have certain risk factors, such as high blood pressure, family history of type 2 diabetes, being overweight, rarely exercising, and over 45 years of age. Women who have gestational diabetes or give birth to babies weighing more than 4.1 kilograms should also check blood sugar levels to determine the risks they may experience. Some other conditions, such as waist size, sleeping habits, polycystic ovary syndrome, high levels of HDL cholesterol or triglycerides, and certain ethnicities also have a risk of developing prediabetes.
In high blood pressure conditions that coincide with obesity, high blood sugar, as well as abnormal blood and cholesterol levels, the risk of insulin resistance may occur in people with it. This co-occurring condition is also known as the condition of the metabolic syndrome.
Diagnosis of Prediabetes
Apart from patient complaints, your doctor will usually recommend blood glucose checks. The type of blood sugar test can be recommended by the physician in accordance with the needs and health conditions of the patient. Such tests may include:
- Blood sugar test in time. This test is done without fasting or without giving sugar to the patient.
- Fasting blood sugar test. This test is performed after the patient fasts for at least 8 hours or overnight. The range that indicates prediabetes is between 100-125 mg / dL or 5.6-6.9 mmol / L.