Stevens-Johnson syndrome is a serious and rare disorder of the skin, mucous membranes, around the genitals, and the eyes. The mucous membrane is a soft layer of tissue that lines the digestive system from the mouth to the anus, as well as the channels of the reproductive organs and eyeballs.
This syndrome generally arises from the body's reaction to drugs or infections. People affected by Stevens-Johnson syndrome usually require immediate medical treatment, and must undergo hospitalization at the hospital.
Symptoms of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
Symptoms that appear in this syndrome initially resemble flu symptoms are:
- The eyes feel hot.
- Inflammation of the mouth and throat.
But after a few days will appear follow-up symptoms include:
- Fluid-filled bumps.
- A reddish or purplish skin rash, which spreads within hours or days.
- Pain in the skin.
- Painful joints.
- Swollen face and tongue.
Causes of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
Drugs or infections can trigger the appearance of Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Some of the drugs at risk for Stevens-Johnson syndrome are:
- Drugs of uric acid.
- Pain relief.
- Antibiotic medication.
- Seizures medicine.
- Radiation therapy.
- Some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
In children, this syndrome is usually caused by a viral infection although in a few cases it can be caused by a bacterial infection. Some of the infections that can cause Stevens-Johnson syndrome are:
- Coxsackie and Epstein-Barr virus.
Risk Factors for Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
Some of the factors that can make a person more susceptible to Stevens-Johnson's syndrome are:
- Families who have had Steven-Johnson syndrome.
- Weakening of the immune system, usually due to HIV / AIDS, organ transplants, or autoimmune diseases.
- Viral infections, such as herpes, viral pneumonia, HIV, hepatitis.
- Ever had Stevens-Johnson Syndrome.
Having a specific gene, such as Gen HLA-B 1502 or HLA-B 1508 that makes a person at risk of developing this syndrome if taking seizures or drugs for psychiatric disorders.
Diagnosis of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
Doctors will usually perform several diagnostic steps in patients suspected of having Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Some of the diagnostic steps are:
- Physical examination and medical records. Often doctors can identify this syndrome after evaluating medical records, the patient's physical condition, as well as patient-reported symptoms.
- Skin biopsy. The doctor will take a sample of skin tissue for further study in the laboratory when necessary.
Treatment of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome
In many cases, patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome should be admitted to the hospital for intensive care. If the patient is undergoing treatment, then generally the doctor's first step is to stop the treatment.
Some of the medicines that doctors usually treat against Stevens-Johnson syndrome are:
- A strong dose of antinyeri medication, to relieve pain from open wounds on the skin.
- Mouthwash, which contains anesthesia and antiseptics to make the mouth numb while, so the process of swallowing food becomes easier.
- Antibiotics, if the patient is suspected of having sepsis.
- Corticosteroid drug, drug administration aims to control the inflammation that occurs, and given in accordance with the recommendations of doctors.